Outline of resources

Various people, including researchers, have been writing down information about the Bandjalung language since the late 1800s. A few Bundjalung dialects have been recorded in some detail, while for others there are limited records, or no record at all. A large collection of audio recordings of Bundjalung speakers, and researchers’ field notes are held at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies in Canberra.


There are four dialects that have been described in detail:

  • Yugumbeh: Cunningham’s 1969 grammar is reliable;
  • Gidabal: the Geytenbeek’s 1971 grammar and word-list;
  • Wahlubal or Western Bundjalung: Crowley’s 1978 grammar and wordlist is the most detailed available;
  • Casino dialect: Smythe’s 1940s description first appeared in Crowley 1978;
  • Sharpe’s description of  the ‘Yugambeh-Bundjalung dialect chain’.

There are brief sketch grammars on several Bundjalung dialects, including:

  • the Minjangbal dialect of Byron Bay, Livingstone (1892),
  • Biirin dialect of Rappville and the Baryulgil dialect, Crowley (n.d)
  • Bundjalung dialect of Bungawalbin Creek, Holmer (1971)
  • over 17 word-lists from various areas, Hargrave (Science of Man:1903).

This project is an initiative of: decorative

Supported through the Australian Government’s Indigenous Languages Support program and New Media program. Copyright © Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Cooperative

Image by Sharon Smith. For more information contact Muurrbay